As children grow, there are certain milestones caregivers look forward to, such as crawling, walking and speaking. By their first birthday, most children know a word or two; at 18 months, their vocabulary should consist of five to 20 words and include simple two-word sentences. But these are rough guidelines. Every child progresses at a different pace.
Approximately one out of every five children experiences a speech delay, and most eventually catch up without any sort of intervention.
Still, it’s best to bring up any concerns with a child’s doctor. If there is a language disorder or developmental concern, early treatment is key to preventing learning problems down the road.
What Are the Reasons for a Speech Delay?
A variety of factors can lead to delayed speech and language skills. These include:
- Hearing loss.
- Oral anatomy (problems with the tongue or soft palate).
- Dysarthria (a disorder involving the muscles that control speech).
- Neurological disorders such as autism, cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy.
- Learning disabilities.
- Auditory processing disorders.
- Premature birth.
- Environmental deprivation.
If the child’s doctor cannot rule out a speech delay, a speech-language pathologist should be consulted for a full evaluation. This involves a series of tests that will be used to assess the child’s receptive language and expressive language skills, sound development, speech clarity and oral-motor skills. Speech therapy may be recommended to help the child develop the skills necessary for effective communication.
What Can Caregivers Do?
Both heredity and environment play a role in speech development. As a caregiver, there are steps you can take to assist children with speech development. Communicate often (talk and sing), encourage verbal interaction whenever possible and read to children starting at a young age.
Call Columbus Speech and Hearing at (614) 263-5151 for more information or to schedule an appointment.